Square stainless steel grade 316Ti (1.4571) contains a small amount of titanium. Titanium content is typically only around 0.5% . Titanium atoms stabilize the structure of 316 at temperatures above 800 ° C. This prevents carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and protects the metal from corrosion. The main advantage of 316Ti is that it can be kept at higher temperatures for longer without sensitivity (precipitation) occurring. 316Ti retains physical and mechanical properties similar to standard 316 grades.
Grade 316 has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to a range of corrosive environments and environments. Generally considered "marine grade" stainless steel, it is not resistant to warm seawater. Hot chloride environments can cause pitting and crevice corrosion. 316 grade is also subject to stress corrosion cracking above 60 ° C.
316 has good resistance to oxidation up to 870 ° C in intermittent service and up to 925 ° C in continuous service . However, continuous use at 425-860 ° C is not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this case, 316L is recommended because of its resistance to carbide precipitation.
Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500 ° C, grade 316H is recommended.
Grade 316 is easily braked or rolled into various pieces. It is also suitable for stamping, header and drawing, but post-working annealing is recommended to reduce internal stresses.
Cold working will increase both the strength and hardness of 316 stainless steel.
All common hot working processes can be performed on 316 stainless steel. Hot processing below 927 ° C should be avoided. The ideal temperature range for hot working is 1149-1260 ° C. Post-work annealing is recommended to ensure optimum corrosion resistance.
316 square stainless steel has good machinability . Processing following rules a compliance could be improved:
~ Cutting edges should be kept sharp. Blind edges cause overworking to harden.
~ The cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent hardening by getting on the surface of the material.
~ Chip breakers should be used to help keep chips out of business.
~ The low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys causes heat to condense at the cutting edges. This means that coolants and lubricants are required and must be used in large quantities.
Fusion welding performance for 316 stainless steel is excellent, both filled and unfilled. Heavily welded sections may require post-weld annealing. 316Ti quality can be used as an alternative to 316 in heavy section welds.
Oxyacetylene welding has not been found to be successful in joining 316 stainless steel.